WK 1: Creativity

“The ability to transcend traditional ideas, rules, patterns, relationships and to create meaningful new ideas, forms, methods, interpretations, etc”. (dictionary.com, 2014).

What is creativity? This was the topic of our very first lecture in this unit, it opened our minds to the broad and undefinable subject of creativity which was needed for us to properly engage in the learning ahead.

we discussed among ourselves what we thought creativity was; “something that comes from within a person, comes from their thinking, feeling and circumstances. Its something new, unique, an original idea, inspired”.

We learned that there is no true definition of creativity but there is many theories; psychologists  and intellectuals alike have spent their lives researching and coming up with their answers to creativity.

In the weeks reading we were introduces to the numerous theories of creativity; there are some more widely accepted than others but again it all comes down to personal opinion or theory.

The three classic theories of creativity are Psychoanalytic, behaviorist, and self actualization. Psychoanalytic is particularly famous because its highly disputed and un-liked, it suggests that “human creativity stems from an unconscious conflict between the primitive sexual urges and the repressed influences of our learned social conscience.” (D,G. 1981). The behaviorist theory (which i personally like) focuses on  reinforcement for correct behavior, concluding that the things we do are the result of prior learning and rewarded behavior. Thirdly there is the self actualization theory that bases a persons creativity and its extent on the individuals choices and circumstances to be creative. There are also a whole lot more alternative views which have many convincing points and possibilities to think about.

In our workshop we all split into groups for each section of the reading, we then read that theory and once finished we all switched around so we could share the main points of the theory we read. After this we had small group discussions on what theories we supported most and why. This became quite heated as everyone had different ideas about creativity and how their lives represent the theory they support.

In my group one girl was adamant that the investment theory was true as she has become more artistic and more capable since she has studied art at uni, where her arty friend still paints on doors and wouldn’t know how to meet the standards to take her art to galleries or be more than an armature artist. Another girl argued against this taking from the special talent theory, that if you are talented enough you will go far, if you have no artistic ability then your hardly going to get far by studying art at uni.

In the end we came to a class conclusion that creativity is something that cannot be defined definitely but that it is different to the individual. Creativity results from our past experiences, our social/cultural context, out genetics, our prior learning and so much more. Creativity is affected by our exterior and interior circumstances, what ever that means is up to you. One thing i know is that every person is creative and that no persons creation is completely original.

References

D, A. G. (1981). “Creativity is forever”. Virginia, USA. Kendall Hunt Publishing Company

Ewing, A. (2014). PDF lecture notes, week 1. retrieved from Blackboard: http://blackboard.ecu.edu.au/

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Wk 7: Copyright

copyright black and white.jpg-550x0

“The Australian Copyright Council is an independent, non-profit organisation. Founded in 1968, we represent the peak bodies for professional artists and content creators working in Australia’s creative industries and Australia’s major copyright collecting societies”. (C,C. 2014)

Basically if your are the original producer of  musical or creative content, Australia says you have the rights of ownership to it and that your work should be protected from plagiarism. Owners of copyright have a number of exclusive rights over their material. And they have the legal right to take action if someone else uses their material without permission, sometimes criminal proceedings can also be brought.

What is the reason for copyright laws?

Copyright law creates incentives for people to invest their time, talent and other resources in creating new material- particularly cultural and educational material, which benefits society. The law not only deals with copyright rights but also deals with performers’ rights and the “moral rights” of individual creators.

My Argument: what is original content? Isn’t all creativity inspired or taken from something else?

Copyright laws only protect the content its self, it doesn’t protect ideas, styles or techniques. Nor does it protect information, names, titles or slogans. The Copyright Act 1968  “allows people to use copyright material without the copyright owner’s
permission in certain situations. These include making a “fair dealing” for certain purposes.” (C,C. 2014). This means that there are acceptable reasons to use copyright content in a way that is only reserved for the owner. Certain situations include education, libraries, governments using the material for research, study, news reporting and criticism.

What if the contents for personal use or there’s no money being made from using it?

We can all relate to this question as our modern culture is entwined with the bending of copyright law, we buy pirated DVDs, we download illegal music and software, TV shows, movies, we file share, we jailbreak our devises and so much more.

It seems that breaking copyright laws is accepted because its done by everyone and there’s no consequences really, it would only seem unlawful if you were making a business out of it or a public statement.

In this weeks workshop we had a debate on the issue- For & Against Copyright laws

There were many convincing arguments brought on each side:

For

  • an unknown/less famous artist should be protected from bigger companies or more famous artists stealing their work (there are many examples in the media; Larrikin music’s “Kookaburra” vs. Men at work’s “down under”
  • File sharing and torrent downloads may be for personal use but they cause the artists to loose millions of dollars in song purchases.
  • Pirate versions of content supports criminals and their practices, pirated DVDs are part of bigger more sinister crimes.
  • The person who created the content should have the right to gain from it and no one else, its their work.
  • There has to be laws and rules otherwise the smaller people would have no stand against the bigger richer people-businesses.

Against

  • In this digital age the copyright laws cant keep up with the rate that technology is moving, we download what we want when we want for free and they cant do anything about it.
  • Creativity is never original it is sourced from our experiences, things we’ve seen and are inspired by. How can someone own something that is not entirely form them in the first place?
  • Copyright came about in a different time and era, it was created to prevents copies but crushes creativity.
  • Copyright covers too many things, if it was re considered and altered to modern practices it could be effective-

From the debate we all came to a conclusion that of course there needs to be laws, and laws will always be broken. But the current copyright laws seem to be dysfunctional in our technological and fast paced world today. Some areas seem to work, like in cases with film and music plagiarism where massive stars and business have the ability to battle against each other with their endless money. But mostly copyright has no standing/value, we are going to download and we are going to do it fast and free. Where going to watch TV shows and films before they air and where going to do all the unseen illegal stuff we can get away with.

Copyright has its place but it needs to be reviewed and changed, rules need to be different for different thing- the music industry doesn’t function like computer software and so on. People do have a right to gain from their creative content but i don’t know where i stand on owning it and everything about it. Maybe there needs to be different incentives or ways of going about things- copyright could be something you buy?

References

(may, 2009). “Copyright and wrongs”. Received from The economist: http://www.economist.com/debate/days/view/310

http://www.technologizer.com/2008/10/13/copy-protection/

Spoor, G. (2014). “Creative property, Copyright & Cultural production”. Retreived from Blackboard: http://blackboard.ecu.edu.au/

Australian copyright council. (2014). “Do i have a copyright question?” Received from: http://www.copyright.org.au/

Wk 9- Creative Environments

What is a creative environment? And what is the relationship between the environment and creativity?

A Creative environment is the physical, social, and cultural environment in which creative activity occurs. An environment is successful when it enhances the ability of the individual or group to engage in creative practices.

Relationship= The environment (surroundings, conditions) aid the Creative Process (ideas, methods, product)

Making up a creative environment:

  • The physical environment, includes the location, atmosphere, material surroundings
  • The Social environment, includes the culture that the individual was educated or lives in, and the people and institutions with whom they interact (communicate). Can be in person or through media*
  • The cultural environment, ideas, customs, values, beliefs and social behaviour of a group of people. Supported collectively*

These contexts can be shaped to enhance the creative productivity of the individual and collaborative groups within the environment.

Examples:

Colour can be used to evoke different moods and emotions within a space

Ergonomics- Scientific discipline that studies the interaction between humans and their environment-the person and their workspace.

Having the ability to collaborate and work individually

Dim Mood lighting for creativity-Research has found that dim lighting helps us to feel less constrained and free to explore and take risks

Having room temperatures around 25*C, this is a stable temp for individuals to concentrate.  Their not wasting energy shivvering and trying to keep warm or sweating and feeling over heated.

Research has also found that ambient/natural noise is the correct noise level for creativity, rather than pure quiet which is for concentration and loud noise which is distracting.

Creative Collaboration:

A group of collaborators with different skills and abilities coming together to solve a problem or produce something new.

In a collaborative team each member carry’s out a different role. In an adverting team for example there might be a Project director, copywriter, editor, graphic designer, web developer and accounts manager.

The first step in the production process is creating a concept, this is a formulation of the general theme or idea of the advertising. Copywriters then compose the script or wording for the advertisements, and the artists and graphic designers create any necessary artwork. Subsequently, an editor proofreads the advertisement for errors and submits the final ad copy. And an advertising manager, in turn, ensures that the message and content of the advertising is commensurate with the overall marketing strategy.

“There are a number of important differences in driving forces behind individual and collaborative creativity. By understanding factors that influence collaborative creativity we can devise ways to promote and enhance it.” (COTACM, 02)

collaborative teams are effective when all the individuals in their different roles engage together to effectively produce a desired outcome. Practices and tools can be implemented so the individuals engage together for successful creativity- effectively come up with ideas and concepts?

“What tools, methodologies and practices can support creativity of individuals in interdisciplinary teams?”….

  • Project manager- to guide the creative process, maintain focus of group, encourage development of ideas, thoughts, encourage active listening.
  • Techniques- brainstorming, mind mapping, synetics, nominal group techniques, etc.
  • Team ethos- to be accepting of diversity, allowing different forms of communication, non-judgmental/ critical of ideas and thoughts, freedom to be unique, to value each other, let every individual speak and have input (no bad or wrong ideas).
  • Time- appropriate amount of time to develop ideas, breaks to refresh, and some time constraint to push process.
  • Thoroughly understand what the business stands for, their values and principals.

(COTACM, 2002) suggests that the below strategies could aid collaborative creativity-

  • Computing technology
  • Devising a shared language
  • Developing a common understanding of the artistic institution and visions.
  • Engaging in extensive discussions and what-if sessions.
  • Sharing knowledge resources

 Creative Environments are a particularly significant focus for businesses and industries today. Creative collaborations are studied so that environments can be shaped to better able a team or an individual to engage in the creative process and in turn produce something better (more innovative, unique).

References:

Creativity (2014). Encyclopedia Britannica, Article. Retrieved from:http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/142249/creativity

Gorny, E. (2007). “Creative environments”. Retrieved from: http://creativity.netslova.ru/Creative_environment.html

Strategic thinking (2014). “How to have a good idea”. Retrieved from stratergy by design: http://strategybydesign.org/how-to-have-a-good-idea/

Smith, G. (feb, 2014). “How to assemble a creative team that clicks”. Retrieved from: http://www.entrepreneur.com/article/231366

creativity articles (2014). “Creating a creative climate”. Retrieved from: http://creatingminds.org/articles/creative_climate.htm

Schawbel, D. (July, 2013). “5 ways to foster creativity at work”. Retrieved from: http://quickbase.intuit.com/blog/2013/07/03/5-ways-to-foster-creativity-at-work/

Cooper, B. (Feb, 2014). “The science behind your ideal work environment”. Retrieved from:http://www.fastcompany.com/3026715/work-smart/the-science-behind-your-ideal-work-environment

Wk 6: Creativity & Design

Creating with rules

“Many creative scientists say that the difference between them and their less creative peers is the ability to separate good ideas from bad ones, so they don’t wast much time exploring blind alleys.” (C, M.  1997).

All creative processes have their limiting factors/constrains that shape how the end product comes together; whether its time, budget, technologies, the consumers, or many more.  These factors can be seen as limits or they can be used as rules that can cause greater creativity (working around the rules), the process of creativity to happen faster, can promote discovery/invention, etc.

The most creative people use rules to their benefit and don’t allow a constraint or limiting factor to inhibit them.  Many make their own rules for creating where the chosen factors shapes their products style. An interior designers might choose to only used recycled, enviro friendly products, or an artist might only paint with certain colours or with certain paints. A good example of this practice is the cartoon series “Tin Tin” created by cartoonist Georges Remi “Herge”.  He was know for his “clear line style” which is seen in his heavy ink strokes for the characters and a more precise realistic style  for the inorganic surroundings.  Hergé saw the cartoon as an art form, in which forms and figures must work together harmoniously. “One tries to eliminate everything that’s graphically redundant, to stylize as much as possible, and to choose the line that’s most expressive.”

Tin tin comic- contrast of cartoon characters & inorganic surroundings

Work shop

Find an example of a company or individual in your area?  Philippe starck- interior & product designer

Discuss the example and how the rules apply / have been broken and to what effect? How have they negotiated the limitations of your field?

 “… From everyday products such as furniture and lemon squeezers, to revolutionary mega-yachts,micro wind turbines, electric cars, and hotels that aspire to be wondrous, stimulating and intensely vibrant places, Starck never ceases to push the boundaries and criteria of contemporary design. His technological miracles are vectors of democratic ecology, focused on action and a respect for the future of both humans and nature.”

Philippe Starck the famous Spatial designer is known for his innovative and functional yet boundary pushing and rule breaking designs. Its obvious as you admire Starck’s works that they all carry a familiar style, you could view his furniture or observe some of his remarkable interiors and intrinsically know they are his creations.  Although stark prides himself on addressing his clients needs and the contextual factors of a project .e.g. the more conservative character of state apartments or the more flamboyant tone needed for a trendy nightclub. He does have some constraints that have developed to shape his work. Fluid lines, organic forms, bold colour, and subtle playful details are all key featured of Starck’s works. For example, in the Delano Hotel, in Miami beach Florida,  each room has a metal apple holder affixed to the wall; the phrase “An apple a day keeps the doctor away” is printed on the holder, promising a daily replenishment of apples. 

FAENA, EL PORTENO HOTEL- Argentina SA View the elegant design, its liquid lines and the fun detailing of unicorn heads.

Stark is also very well known for his masterful use of industrial styling, Marseilles’s Mamma Shelter hotel, Paris is an incredible example of this. Starck’s aim was to create a welcoming space, that encourages mingling and is open to people of all cultures. He combined industrial style  rules; minimalism, different surface types and textures, straight lines, clean flat surfaces, aluminium, metals, exposed brick and wood. With his own personal flair that breaks the rules of the industrial look, but reflects Starck’s well  loved style with its world wide success. You wont often see bright bold colours in industrial spaces but Starck uses them in a way to highlight features and bring a sense of fun that is needed in in the area. He mixes industrial furniture with brightly painted furniture, he contrasts dark shadows and dim lighting with fluorescent lights and neon’s. On each floor there is a different colour scheme with rooms featuring bright coloured walls and objects also coloured brightly-even lit fluorescently. Another detail that makes Starck’s work distinctly his is the inclusion of fun and humorous objects. In the bar area you see brightly coloured inflatable rings threaded onto above head poles. In the restaurant/dinning area he has hanging fluorescent tea pot lights and on one floor there is a chicken theme with giant chicken portraits and chicken prints on chairs and curtains. In some bed rooms there are super hero masks as bed side lamps and through one of the floors he has used the ceiling as a black board where graffiti, writing and drawings are featured. If you observe this amazingly created place you  can appreciate how it meets the clients needs, its warm and inviting with its mood lighting and vibrant atmosphere, its open but enticing as colours and lighting draw you in, its trendy and modern yet has an environment that could suit most cultures. Starck’s edge gives the hotel its unique, fun and vibrant feel, without the rules that Starck plays by this hotel could just be a cold and uninviting industrial styled place. Starck used the rules of industrial style to his advantage, where he twists the genre and adds in his own bravura to create something amazing!

Image of Philippe Starck Designs the Interior for Marseille's MAMA shelter Hotel

bright yellow chairs contrast with wooden tables and surrounding chairs

Image of Philippe Starck Designs the Interior for Marseille's MAMA shelter Hotel

yellow adding personality- more inviting

rubber flotation rings add a sense of fun and colour to a dull area

this room is mostly grey bar the graffiti ceiling and coloured cupboards- Starck style

room featuring yellow contrast- Industrial vs Starck

References:

The history of Herg’e (2014). Retrieved from:

http://us.tintin.com/about/the-artistry-of-herge/#sthash.CGqEVC6j.dpuf

Wingfeild, J. (Jan, 2013.). Philippe Starck short Biography. Retrieved from web site Starck: http://www.starck.com/en/philippe_starck/biography/

Zukwowsky, J. (2003). Philippe Starck. Retrieved from the Encyclopedia Britannica website:

http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/1233446/Philippe-Starck

Elshout, G.  (2007). Philippe Stark himself. Retrieved from the chair blog website: 

http://www.chairblog.eu/2007/10/03/starck/

Staff. (2012). Philippe Starck designs the interior of Marseilles MAMA shelter hotel. Retrieved from the hype beast website: http://hypebeast.com/2012/9/philippe-starck-designs-the-interior-for-marseilles-mama-shelter-hotel

wk 4: The creative psyche

The Human psyche; innermost self, inner ego, the soul, mind or spirit. This hidden and extensively complex part of all humans has been studied and experimented with for centuries, and the reason seems clear.  All our outer workings, our behaviors, our expressions result from the functions within us.  Jung is one psychologist who delved within himself to understand the dissatisfaction and inner turmoil he felt. “He had to find a way, a method to heal himself from within. Since he didn’t know what to do, he decided to engage with the impulses and images of the unconscious” (C.G. Jung, 1997). Later he called this “Active imagination” opening ones self to the unconscious and giving free rein to fantasy, while maintaining an active, attentive, conscious point of view.

Fear C.G. Jung- from “The red book”

Many of Jung’s psychological concepts came form his experiences with Active imagination; his theory is that there is three parts to the human psyche, the ego- conscious mind, personal unconscious mind- not presently conscious but can be, and the collective unconscious- our psychic inheritance.  According to Jung our collective unconscious is responsible for many inbuilt ways that we experience things, these he calls Archetypes. For example the Father characterized as a guide or authoritarian. There is also the shadow, this archetype is considered the dark side of the ego, the things we are capable of but hide or disguise. Most people have many hidden things, there not necessarily bad but can be kept secret for many reasons. Jung also believed that ultimately all people are bisexual having female and male traits, and the roles we play are due to our gender. Anima is the female aspect present in the unconscious of the male and Animus is the male aspects present in the female.

Mythopoesis: The human construction of myths

 

What is a Myth? “A traditional or legendary story, usually concerning some being or hero or event, with no basis for fact or explanation, especially one that is concerned with deities or demigods and explains some practice, rite, or phenomenon of nature.”

So its obvious why humans from all walks of life have loved making them? Mythopoesis is basically a form of creative expression, its an outlet for invention and imagination. Like the high fantasy stories by J.R.R. Tolkien, he indulges in mythopoesis as he invents whole new worlds and characters never seen or thought of before.

Workshop activity

Identify between 2 or more scenes in movies, books or games that have evoked a powerful emotion you thought was odd, unexpected or significant.

The land before time- When Little foots mum is laying in the pouring rain and as shes dying she says to him “”I’ll be with you, even if you can’t see me.” That moment was terribly sad, i still remember it so clearly even though i was very young. I cried my heart out for poor little foot as i imagined the feeling of loosing my own mum.

Marley & me- Although i found the movie quite boring i did cry a lot in the end when Marley had to be euthanized. As the family buried him under a tree in their front yard it reminded me of when i had to do the same with my beloved dog Desy.

Discuss what it was about the scenes(s) that elicited that reaction and try to identify if there is there a pattern in your responses that reveals something about you.

I can recognize that loss is something i don’t deal well with, its something I’ve never really understood and would rather avoid thinking about than facing it. When i was younger and a movie made me cry i remember i would never watch it again, i would always go for the feel good movies and avoid anything too meaningful. Through my responses to these scenes i can see that loosing something i value or love is an unconscious burden that i would rather not deal with. The feelings of hurt and loss seem too painful to me, i don’t want to indulge in them for the sake of a movie or a book!

References:

Chodorow, J. (n.d.). Active Imagination. Retrieved from the Answers.com website: http://www.answers.com/topic/active-imagination-analytical-psychology#ixzz2wKGyG893

Doughan, D. (n.d.). Who was Tolkien? Retrieved from the Tolkien society website: http://www.tolkiensociety.org/tolkien/biography.html‎

Dr Spoors, G. (2014). CCA1103 Wk 4 Lecture notes. Retrieved from Blackboard, Edith Cowan University website: http://blackboard.ecu.edu.au/webapps/portal/frameset.jsp?url=%2Fwebapps%2Fblackboard%2Fexecute%2Flauncher%3Ftype%3DCourse%26id%3D_591025_1%26url%3D

Jung, G. C. (1997). C.J. Jung on Active imagination. Princeton University Press

wk: 2 Creativity- a historical over view

“Creative” (having the quality of creating)

I have always referred to my self as a creative person, it’s who I am, everything I do is creative. But it seems there’s more to the word “creative” than I first thought.

Today we retraced the origins of human creativity, from cave paintings produced under hallucination to the ancient Egyptians using one formula for the representation of a person for 3000 years. we worked our way through the medieval, the dark ages, the Renaissance, the agricultural & industrial eras and continuing till now. The one common message I received from this overview was that what i produce creatively is not unique or a creation of my own at all. One of the historical shifts that really stood out to me was the Ancient Egyptians, they successfully “repeated a single representation of a body for over 3,000 years”. Its been discovered that whenever someone drew a body that they used a formula to make sure it was a precise replica of previous drawings. There was no individual value for people but an emphasis on hierarchy and order, this is how their representation lasted. Interestingly there are some earlier ideas of creativity that still exist today, for example in rhetoricians creativity was admired in terms of how cleverly a speaker swayed an audience. Today people still do the same, they use fancy educated words to seem smarter and gain an advantage over others. We admire Poets, rappers and musicians for their cleaver writing & persuasion.

Techniques of Egyptian Art The head of the character was always drawn in profile, while the body is seen from the front. The legs are turned to the same side as the head, with one foot placed in front of the other. The head is at right angles to the body. the face is to the side, the eye is drawn in full.

To summarize the development of human creation you would say it still continues to develop today, people continually push the boundaries and aim to produce the unseen and original. Our culture is for equality and freedom of speech,  people can freely express themselves and their opinions outwardly. Today what you believe “creativity” is simply implicit to you, it’s not a social theory but an individual one.

Continuing with “Theories” in mind, today’s tutorial class had us learning the many theories of creativity. We each were given a section to read, then we would move to different groups and share what we had read and then they would share back. There was a lot of discussion and debate over which theory was correct and why people were in favor of one thing and strictly against another. This would partially explain why there is so many theories, everyone has a different view with different backgrounds and experienced to influence them.

There are three main theoretical approaches covered in the reading; psychoanalytic, behavioral, and self actualization as well as seven contemporary theories. As you study these theories you can see that each of them do have some validity to them, for example. Sigmund Freud had the least liked of all the theories but his ideas about “regression” relating creative thought to child like thinking is a popular idea still today. The theories i looked into were the “Behaviorism and learning”theories, they were the most valid out of the theories for my mind. I’ve always believed that our creativity isn’t original “There is no such thing as creativity, we have no freedom as all our behavioral is controlled by those who give reinforcements & punishments” (Skinner, 1971). I also found the idea by Staats (1968) on “complex stimulus control” to be highly relative to myself and the processes i use when trying to create something or thinking of an idea. “We begin with the existence of two unrelated stimulus-response (S-R) relationships, each established by previous reinforcement.” So basically our creative ideas are just new combinations of things we’ve seen or thought before. This makes sense to me especially since “Pinterest” is my favorite source for ideas and inspiration on the web.

https://www.pinterest.com/‎
Pinterest is a visual discovery tool that you can use to find ideas for all your projects and interests

The next classic theory is self actualization, this is based on a person being  “a fully functioning, mentally healthy, forward-growing human being who is using his or her own talents to become what he or she is capable of becoming. A person is basically as creative as they can be due to the factors of self actualization and special talents. Out of the other theories i agree with the investment view & i particularly like the implicit ideas of creativity, “A theory or concept of creativity that exists in one’s mind”. We all have our own idea of what creativity is, in a broad view we may all have a similar idea but due to our different social, cultural experiences we have many different specifics of what creativity is. There is so much more to go over, but i might as well put up the piece if i went through it all. Creativity is the beginning of everything and the individual expression of each person, where it comes from? What exactly it is? ill leave that to the scientists, mean while I’m going to be creative.